Frequently Asked Questions

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What is personalized medicine?

Personalized Medicine: The use of genomic information in addition to family history, lifestyle and environmental factors to customize health management. By combining genomic and clinical information, more accurate predictions can be made about a person’s susceptibility of developing disease, the course of disease, and response to treatment.

What is molecular diagnostic (MDx) testing?

Molecular Diagnostics (MDx): The examination of how genes (DNA, RNA) and proteins interact in an individual’s cells using mass spectroscopy and microarray gene chips that produce identifiable expression patterns or “molecular signatures” that…

  1. reflect specific diseases or may be predictors of future disease likelihood;
  2. identify genetic variants that affect metabolism or drug response;
  3. and help guide clinicians to define the best treatment plans for their patients and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

(Source: NIH)

What is pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing?

Pharmacogenomics (PGx): examines the influence of naturally occurring genetic variants in patients using advanced DNA analysis technologies to identify clinically relevant variations that can affect the proper metabolism and subsequent, effectiveness, of many commonly prescribed drugs.

Is the study of how an individuals genetic inheritance affects the body’s response to drugs. Pharmacogenomics combines traditional pharmaceutical sciences e.g. biochemistry with annotated knowledge of genes, proteins and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNRs). Eliminates trial and error method of matching patients to drugs. Analyzes a patient’s genetic profile to determine to enable clinicians to prescribe the best available drug therapy from the beginning.

What are the common molecular diagnostic or pharmacogenomic tests performed on cardiology patients?

There are a number of tests for cardiology patients that can provide your physician with useful information that Is helpful in determining the most effective treatment plan individualized to you (based on your genetic profile or expression). Some of the most common tests performed and what they assess are:

  • CYP450 2C19   Platelet inhibitor metabolism (Plavix)
  • CYP450 2C9/VKORC1   Warfarin resistance (Coumadin)
  • CYP450 2D6   Beta blocker metabolism (Propranolol/Inderal)
  • CYP450 3A4/3A5   Protease inhibitors (Statins/Calcium Channel Blockers)
  • Factor II   Prothrombin deficiency
  • Factor V Leiden   Inherited thrombophilia
  • MTHFR    Hyperhomocysteinemia

When is testing indicated?

For cardiology patients, testing may be indicated for patients having

  1. interventional procedures;
  2. being put on or undergoing antiplatelet or anti- coagulation drug therapy;
  3. patients taking multiple medications where potential drug-drug interactions could occur;
  4. patients that have had an adverse event while on drug therapy or experiencing unwanted side effects from medications;
  5. patients at an increased risk for thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia or in lay terms, bleeding;
  6. or for patient’s who feel their medications are not working.


What tests do you offer?

Genetisys offers a broad range of genetic (molecular diagnostic and pharmacogenomic) tests.

Click here to find out more about our products and services, contact us, or call (858) 848-7098.

We’re glad to answer your questions!

Will the tests be covered by insurance (or how much does testing cost)?

Medicare and most private insurance companies are now reimbursing for pharmacogenomic testing when medically indicated. If you have questions, contact your insurance provider or feel free to contact us or call (858) 848-7098 for information.

We are happy to answer your questions!

Does Medicare, Medicaid and private Insurers reimburse for genetic tests?

Medicare, Medicaid and most private insurers reimburse for our tests. To find out more, Simply contact us or call (858) 848-7098 for information.

We’re pleased to assist you anytime!

How can I set up to provide genetic testing services in my office?

Simply contact us or call (858) 848-7098.

It’s that easy!

Where do I find additional references or information on genetic testing?

  • ABMG-American Board of Medical Genetics (M.D., Ph.D certification)
  • ABGC-American Board of Genetic Counselors (ABGC): (MS certification)
  • ACCP-American College of Clinical Pharmacology (pharmacogenetic resources)
  • AMP-Association for Molecular Pathology (professional ORG)
  • ASCP-American Society of Clinical Pathology (professional ORG, certification)
  • CAP-College of American Pathologists (professional ORG, accreditation of laboratories)
  • Chromosome Disorder Outreach (info and support for families and professionals)
  • Genetic Alliance (directory of genetic support groups for consumers and professionals)
  • Genetics Home Reference (Consumer Reference Site)
  • Genetics and Rare Disease Information Center (experienced specialists answer questions)
  • MedlinePlus (medical encyclopedia, interative tutorials, info on drugs for consumers)
  • NCBI-National Center for Biotechnology Information (a public info resource for molecular biology, biomedical databases, software tools for analyzing genomic data; based at NIH)
  • Pharmacogenomics Research Network (NIH)
  • (Ntl lab directory, peer review articles, education)
  • (genetics portal, journal)

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